“Krutz and Peake come to their conclusions following carefully developed studies that could serve as a model for such a political analysis… As [they] present each chapter with a summary of the argument developed and supported up to this point, the reader can grasp and understand their discussion and argument at virtually any point in the book. Overall, Treaty Policies and Executive Agreements are a clear and important book that significantly complements the existing literature on the presidency and the relationship between the President and Congress. The authors` challenge to the standard declaration of the growth of executive agreements and the emphasis on the important role of the House of Representatives in approving international agreements should be emphasized. Roger E. Kanet, University of Miami, for International Studies Review The Case-Zablocki Act of 1972 asks the President to inform the Senate within 60 days of an executive agreement. The president`s powers to conclude such agreements have not been restricted. The reporting requirement allowed Congress to vote in favor of repealing an executive agreement or to refuse funding for its implementation.   Krutz and Peake conclude that executive agreements are a reciprocal adaptation of the executive and legislative branches in a divided system of power. Most executive agreements were concluded in accordance with a treaty or an act of Congress. However, presidents have sometimes reached executive agreements to achieve goals that would not find the support of two-thirds of the Senate. For example, after the outbreak of World War II, but before the Americans entered the conflict, President Franklin D. Roosevelt negotiated an executive agreement that gave the United Kingdom 50 obsolete destroyers in exchange for 99-year leases on some British naval bases in the Atlantic. In the United States, executive agreements are binding at the international level when negotiated and concluded under the authority of the President on foreign policy, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces or from a previous congressional record.
For example, the President, as Commander-in-Chief, negotiates and concludes Armed Forces Agreements (SOFAs) that govern the treatment and disposition of U.S. forces deployed in other nations. However, the President cannot unilaterally enter into executive agreements on matters that are not in his constitutional jurisdiction. In such cases, an agreement should take the form of an agreement between Congress and the executive branch or a contract with the Council and the approval of the Senate.  Executive agreement of Congress, a binding agreement between the United States and a foreign country, which is easier to adopt than a formal treaty, but is technically more limited.